A dated but helpful work is R. Nisbet Bain, Charles XII and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire (1895; repr. His father, Charles XI, had been the ruler of Sweden for 4 decades and was known as an excellent king. These negotiations led in fact to a coalition between Denmark, Saxony, and Russia that, by attacking Sweden in the spring of 1700, began the Great Northern War. Thereafter, the Russians interfered successfully with the Swedes’ communications, and by the summer of 1709 Charles XII had no choice between accepting battle with the Russians or withdrawing once more into Poland. However, Sweden was ready for such circumstances, and its armies were immediately mobilized to tackle the invaders. Charles XII had been carefully prepared for his task by excellent tutors and governors. In adolescence a personal program for toughening physique—in particular, his intrepid horsemanship and his predilection for risks—worried the old and staid among the courtiers. Charles XII of Sweden "Carolus Rex" redirects here. He was the last absolute ruler, the last warrior – king, who continued the policy of … Ragnhild M. Hatton, Charles XII of Sweden (1968), is the best study in any language. England and the Netherlands supported him and his armies won over the Danes during a sea battle.He also beat Peter I Russian Tsar. ), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. Charles XII of Sweden was born on June 17, 1682, in Tre Kronor, Sweden, to Charles XI of Sweden and Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark. 193 relations. Corrections? He was hailed by the historians as a great military commander and an able politician. Charles's diplomacy is considered in John Joseph Murray, George I, the Baltic and the Whig Split of 1717: A Study in Diplomacy and Propaganda (1969). The attack failed, and three days later the bulk of the Swedish Army surrendered to the Russians at Perevolochna. They faced a harsh winter that depleted his army to a great extent. Charles XII, (born June 17, 1682, Stockholm—died Nov. 30, 1718, Fredrikshald, Nor. Carl XII (1682-1718), in Swedish Karl XII and in English alternately referred to as Charles, was King of Sweden 1697-1718.. For images of his Stockholm statue see subcategory Karl XII:s staty. Nick Name: Ironhead Charles, Demirbaş Şarl, Also Known As: Charles XII, Carolus Rex, Carl XII, See the events in life of Charles XII Of Sweden in Chronological Order. Hence, Charles was physically unfit to command his army in Poltava. For the first few years, the young king focused on hunting and partying. However, instead of retreating, Charles wanted to face the Russians in a decisive battle. Charles spent the next few years in Turkey, trying to gather forces to attack Russia. ), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. Born on June 17, 1682, at Tre Kroner Castle or Three Crown Castle in Stockholm, Sweden. The king of Denmark attacked Holstein, Poland attacked Riga, and Russia attacked Narva. His mother passed away in 1693, and this was a huge shock for young Charles. Between 1701 and 1707, Charles was involved in a series of negotiations in Europe, which ended up reducing the Danish and the Polish threats to a great extent. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. Charles XII: A Swedish Conqueror. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/charles-xii-of-sweden-32198.php, Top NBA Players With No Championship Rings, The Top 25 Wrestling Announcers Of All Time, Famous Role Models You Would Like To Meet. Photograph from 1917. The battle finally took place in July 1709 in Poltava. Charles XII grew up in a happy environment. In May 2012 the Swedish power metal band Sabaton released an album named “Carolus Rex”. Charles XII, also Carl (Swedish: Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. Charles XII (Swedish: Karl XII) was the king of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. 0 Reviews . His father passed away in 1697. They won the Battle of Hołowczyn in July 1708, but Russian scorched-earth tactics forced Charles to abandon his route to Moscow and turn instead into the Ukraine. Back then, Sweden was admired as a kingdom that had produced great warriors. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. Its intricately designed war machinery and monarchy were both absolutely destroyed. Charles was not unmindful of Sweden’s role in central and western Europe; his support of the Silesian Protestants against the Catholic Habsburg emperor was firmly based on the Swedish guarantee of the Peace of Westphalia, and he continued that policy of the “balancing role” between the great coalitions of the west to which Swedish rulers and statesmen since 1660 had aspired in the hope of achieving prestige and territory by armed mediation in suitable circumstances. IMHO, Poltava was his defeat because that battle did break the back of his army and was a turning point of the Great Northern War. His first necessity in 1706, however, was to secure Sweden’s position in relation to Russia, which, under Peter I the Great, had from 1703 onward made good use of Charles XII’s campaigns in Poland to train its army and undertake a piecemeal conquest of the Swedish east Baltic provinces. After his mother’s death, Prince Charles became more serious about the matters related to his kingdom and began accompanying his father on his political travels and at official events. Charles XII, sometimes Carl (Swedish: Karl XII) or Latinized to Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. Initially, Charles XII’s reign was peaceful. At the time of his ascension to the throne, the Swedish Empire spanned a vast area in Europe and was known as one of the most powerful European countries. Updates? He planned to attack Norway, with an aim to prevent the Danish king from helping Russia in future conflicts. Charles XII and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire, 1682-1719. The early campaigns—the descent on Zealand (August 1700), which forced Denmark out of the war; the Battle of Narva (November 1700), which drove the Russians away from the Swedish trans-Baltic provinces; and the crossing of the Western Dvina River (1701), which scattered the troops of Augustus II (elector of Saxony and king of Poland)—were all planned and directed by the officers whom Charles had inherited from his father; but the King, while developing his military skill, gave valuable help in fostering morale by his courage, his religiously coloured optimism, and his faith in the cause of Sweden as the victim of a concerted attack. Directed by John W. Brunius. Charles XII of Sweden. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Charles XI’s chief consolation was a close companionship with his heir, and from this time onward Prince Charles accompanied his father on travels of inspection and on all kinds of official occasions. However, Charles XII of Sweden was willing to aid the English Tories by sending troops to put the Pretender on the throne, in conjunction with an English rising. The regency ruled the nation for 7 months, and when they thought that Charles was ready to rule solely, they crowned him the king. Charles XII defeated his enemies in the first six years of his Hatton focuses on the political, diplomatic, and military life of the Swedish monarch in this massive study. By the time this program had been brought to success and Stanisław Leszczyński elected king of Poland—Augustus being forced to accept the settlement by a Swedish invasion of Saxony in September 1706—Charles XII had matured both as a general and as a statesman. ), king of Sweden (1697–1718), an absolute monarch who defended his country for 18 years during the Great Northern War and promoted significant domestic reforms. Following this, he decided to focus solely on Russia, which was the biggest worry for Sweden. In 1709, Charles’s army was in Ukraine, on its way to Moscow. In a battle in Norway’s Fredriksten, he was shot in his head. He had been open and confiding; but on succeeding to the crown he assumed a noncommittal behaviour in public, though in private he was much influenced by the instructions that his father had left for his political guidance and by the counsel of his father’s advisers. However, she was eventually coerced to surrender the throne to her husband, King Frederick I of Sweden. For the remaining fragment of Gothenburg's city walls, see ... For the 1925 Swedish film, see Charles XII (film). Charles XII, sometimes Carl XII (Swedish: Karl XII) or Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. Select from premium Charles Xii Of Sweden of the highest quality. He took part in the Nordic War (1700-1721), in which his enemies were Denmark, Poland and Russia. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. However, he was too young to take charge of the country. Hence, he was the only remaining son of the royal family. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach.Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder.He assumed power, after a seven-month caretaker government, at the age of fifteen. Frederick IV and Augustus II were defeated by Sweden, under Charles XII, and forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709 after the defeat of Charles XII at the Battle of Poltava. The Old School is the good ol' 19th century romanticism. Charles XII also Carl of Sweden, Swedish: Karl XII, Latinized to Carolus Rex, Turkish: Demirbaş Şarl (which means Charles the Habitué or Charles the Fixture) (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718) was the King of the Swedish Empire from 1697 to 1718. One day in November, 1697, a review was being held of the royal troops at Stockholm, Sweden. The speedy success hoped for by the three allied powers did not materialize, and rumours of rebellion by the Swedish nobility against the absolutist monarchy, in case of war, proved false. Al Stewart's song "The Coldest Winter in Memory" deals primarily with Charles's military campaign and defeat by Peter the Great. Yet, Charles exhibited great military skills, and Russia was defeated. The Charles XII Bible was a Bible translation into swedish ordered by Charles XII. In 1707, in an attempt to deliver a final blow to Russia, Charles gathered the largest army possible and marched toward Moscow. Charles XII’s body, a visible hole obtained under Fredrikshald. Sweden - Sweden - The reign of Charles XII: Charles XII acceded to the throne at age 15 at a time when, in the hinterland of the Baltic coast, dominated by the Swedes, new states were being formed. An historical film depicting the life of Charles XII of Sweden (1682-1718), who oversaw the expansion of the Swedish Empire until its defeat at the Battle of Poltava. The war that resulted was known as the Great Northern War. Charles’s responsibility in planning and executing armed operations constantly increased, so that from 1702 he became the superior of most of his officers. Charles XII, (born June 17, 1682, Stockholm—died Nov. 30, 1718, Fredrikshald, Nor. The monarchs of all the three neighboring nations formed an alliance in 1700 and planned to launch a major attack on Sweden. Thus, he never married or fathered any children. Charles XII also Carl of Sweden, Swedish: Karl XII, Latinized to Carolus Rex, Turkish: Demirbaş Şarl, also known as Charles the Habitué (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718) was the King of the Swedish Empire from 1697 to 1718. He was the second-born child of his parents and the eldest son in the family, making him the natural heir to the throne. However, by then, Norway had gathered a strong support from the neighboring countries and Charles’s chances of winning were bleak. Charles XII of Sweden was born on June 17, 1682, in Tre Kronor, Sweden, to Charles XI of Sweden and Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark. In 1700, he faced his first big challenge as a king when Sweden was attacked by three neighborhood kingdoms, who wished to take advantage of a weakened country and a young and inexperienced king. Culture / History / Nationalism. The campaign was unsuccessful. Within the first 6 weeks, the attack on Holstein by Denmark was countered, and Charles emerged victorious. Charles was also known for practicing abstinence from sex and alcohol. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karl_XII_1706.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karl_XII_1697.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portr%C3%A4tt_av_Karl_XII._Alt-Ranstad_-_Skoklosters_slott_-_86683.tif, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carl_XII_of_Sweden,_engraving.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karl_(Charles)_XII_of_Sweden.png, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:David_Kl%C3%B6cker_Ehrenstrahl_-_Charles_XII_of_Sweden_1697.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_of_Charles_XII_of_Sweden.jpg. He was the second-born child of his parents and the eldest son in the family, making him the natural heir to the throne. Tories (British political party)-Wikipedia. Prince Charles was the second child and eldest (and only surviving) son of Charles XI of Sweden and Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark. He had also received military training from the best military strategists of the country. He then handled the invasion of Riga, but upon knowing about the Russian attack on Narva, he quickly moved there. Charles XII spent his childhood amidst luxury. Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. A number of albums started by Ultima Thule, later including other artists were named "Carolus Rex". He, however, ended up losing his life while fighting in Norway in 1718. He was 36 years old at the time of his death. Upon his exit from the battlefield, the Swedish army lost its way in front of the Russian army, which was again, double the size of the Swedish army. Robert Nisbet Bain. Other than being an able war commander, Charles was also known as an exceptional politician and ruler. Secure the resources that could have helped the Swedes boy, the attack on Holstein by Denmark countered... 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